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Section 1 - General provisions

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General provisions

1.1. The Present Traffic Rules and regulations establish a uniform procedure for the road traffic in the entire territory of the Republic of India. Other regulations relating to road traffic, should be based on these requirements and do not contradict them.

1.2. The following are the basic concepts and terminology used in the rules:

    "Highway" - the road marked with sign 5.1 , and which has for each direction of movement, carriageways that are separated from each other by a dividing strip of land (and in the absence of strip, by barricade), without intersections on the same level with any other road, railway or tramway track, walking or cycling paths.

    "Road Train" - mechanical vehicle, in conjuction with the trailer (trailers).

    "Bicycle" - means of transport, except for wheelchairs, having two or more wheels, and driven by the muscular power of the people residing on it.

    "Driver" - any person who drives a motor vehicle or other vehicle (including a cycle), or who guides cattle, single or in herds, or flocks or saddle animals on a road. The person traininng another person is a driver.

    "Forced stop" - the termination of movement of a vehicle due to its technical defects or hazards caused by the transported cargo, state (condition) of the driver (passenger) or the appearance of obstacles on the road.

    "Main road" - the road indicated by the signs 2.1 , 2.3.1 - 2.3.7 (2.3.1 , 2.3.2 , 2.3.3 , 2.3.4 , 2.3.5 , 2.3.6 , 2.3.7 ) or 5.1   in relation to the crossing (adjacent), or a road with hard surface (asphalt- and cement concrete, stone materials, and the like) in relation to the unpaved (mud), or any road in relation to the exit from adjacent territories. The presence of hard surface on the road just before the intersection with the main road does not make it equal in value at the crossing.
     

    "Daytime running lights" - external lighting devices, designed to improve the visibility of a moving in front vehicle in the daytime.

    "Road" - equipped or adapted, strip of land or surface of artificial constructions and used for the movement of vehicles and open to public traffic. The road includes one or more carriageways, as well as the tram way, sidewalks (pedestrian ways, pavements), roadside and dividing strip if present.

    "Traffic" - a set of public relations arising in the process of movement of people and goods by means of vehicles or without vechiles, within the limit of the road.

    "Road accident" - the event, which arose in the process of on-road movement of vehicle and with its participation, in which people were killed or wounded; vehicles, or structures, or goods were damaged, or some other damage was caused.

    "Railway crossing" - crossing of the road and the railway tracks at the same level.

    "Fixed-route vehicle" (public  transport) - means of transport of collective (general) use (bus, tram), designed for road transportation of people and moving along a set route with predefined places of stops.

    "Motor vehicle" - an engine-driven vehicle. The term also applies to any tractors and self-propelled machines.

    "Moped" - two- or three wheel vehicle powered by an engine with a capacity of not more than 50 cm3 and having the maximum constructive speed not exceeding 50 km/h. Moped are also considered  bicycles with outboard engine, scooter and other vehicles with similar characteristics. Mopeds are treated as motorcycles in the Republic of India.

    "Motorcycle" - two-wheeled mechanical vehicle with a lateral trailer or without it. Scooter, three- and four-wheeled motor vehicles, having a mass in equipped state not more than 400 kg are also considered as motorcycle.

    "Built-up area" - an area, entrances to and exits from which are marked with signs 5.23.1- 5.26.

    "Lack of visibility" - visibility of less than 300 m in conditions of fog, rain, snow and the like, as well as in twilight.

    "Overtaking" - forestalling (advancing) of one or several means of transport, associated with the exit from the occupied lane, and subsequent return to previously occupied lane.

    "Roadside" - an element of the road, directly adjacent to the roadway (carriageway) on the same level with it, with a different type of surface or allocated by the sign 1.2.1  or 1.2.2  and used for movement, stopping and parking in accordance with the Rules.

    "Limited visibility" - visibility of the road by the driver in the direction of movement, limited by terrain, geometrical parameters of the road, vegetation (plants and trees), buildings, constructions or other objects, including means of transport.

    "Danger for the movement" - the situation that emerge in the movement on the road, when the continuation of the movement in the same direction and with the same speed creates a threat of a road accident.

    "Dangerous goods" - substances, articles made out of it, waste from production and other economic activities, which by virtue of their inherent properties, may in the process of carriage create a threat to the life and health of people, cause harm to the environment, damage or destroy the material values.

    "Advance" - the movement of the vehicle at a speed greater than the speed of moving vehicle in the same direction.

    "Organized transportation of a group of children" - special transport of two and more children of preschool and school age, carried out in a mechanical vehicle, not attributable to fixed-route vehicle.

    "Organized walking by column" - specified in accordance with paragraph 4.2 of the rules, a group of people together moving on the road in the same direction.

    "Organized movement of transport by column" - a group of three or more mechinical-driven vehicles, following directly after each other in the same lane of the road, with constantly switched on headlights, lead by the head vehicle which has special color-graphical schemes on its surface (body) and switched on beacons of blue and red colors.

    "Stop" - the deliberate termination of movement of the vehicle for up to 5 min, as well as for more if it is necessary for embarkation or disembarkation of the passengers, or loading or unloading of the vehicle.

    "Passenger" - a person, in addition to the driver, located in the vehicle (on it), and also the person, who boards in the vehicle or comes out from the vehicle.

    "Crossing" - the place of intersection, connections or splicing of roads on the same level, limited by imaginary lines that connect respectively opposite, the most remote from the center of the intersection, the beginning of curved parts. The exit from the adjacent residential areas cannot  be  considered as crossing.

    "Lane change" - exit from the occupied lane with preservation of the original direction of movement.

    "Pedestrian" - a person on the road, outside the vehicle, and not carrying out road work. To pedestrians equates a person travelling in a wheelchair without engine, leading bicycle, carrying luge, cart, baby buggy or a wheelchair.

    "Pedestrian crossing" - the section of the roadway, marked with signs 5.19.1 , 5.19.2  and (or) markings 1.14.1 - 1.14.2 and dedicated to pedestrians crossing the road. In the absence of the markings, the width of pedestrian crossing is determined by the distance between signs 5.19.1 and 5.19.2.
     

    "Lane" - any one of the longitudinal strips on the roadway, marked or not marked up and has a width, sufficient for the movement of vechiles in a row.

    "Advantage of movement (priority)" - the right to priority of movement in the planned direction, in relation to other participants of the movement on the road.

    "Obstacle" - stationary object at the side of the road (defective or damaged means of transport, a defective part of the road, objects, etc.), not allowing to continue to move in this lane.

    "Adjacent territory" - the area immediately adjacent to the road and not intended for pass--through movement of the vehicles (courtyards, residential areas, parking lots, petrol stations, factories and the like). The movement in the adjacent territory is carried out in accordance with these Rules.

    "Trailer" - a vehicle that is not equipped with the engine and intended for movement in the composition with mechanical means of transportation. The term also applies to the semi-trailers and wagon type trailers.

    "Semi-trailer" - means any trailer designed to be coupled to a motor vehicle in such a way that part of it rests on the motor vehicle and that a substantial part of its mass and of the mass of its load is borne by the motor vehicle;

    "Carriageway" - an element of the road, intended for movement of  the vehicles without rails. A road may comprise several carriageways clearly separated from one another by, for example, a dividing strip or a difference of level;

    "Dividing line" - an element of the road, dedicated constructively and (or) with the help of markup 1.2.1 separating adjacent carriageways and not intended for the movement and stopping of the vehicles.

    "Permissible maximum weight" - maximum weight of the vehicle with the cargo, the driver and passengers, indicated by the manufacturer as the maximum allowed. The permissible maximum weight of transport means with a trailor(s), and moving as a whole, is the amount of the permitted maximum weight of the vehicles included in the composition.

    "Traffic Cop" - a person, possessing in the established order, the authority to regulate road traffic signals, set by the Rules, and directly implementing the regulation. The traffic cop (controller) must be in uniform and (or) bear the distinctive emblem and equipment. The regulator are employees of police (and military automobile inspection?), as well as employees of road maintenance services, people on duty at railway crossings and ferries, performing their official duties.

    "Parking" - the deliberate termination of movement of the vehicle for longer than 5 minutes, for the reasons not related to the boarding or disembarking passengers, or loading or unloading of the vehicle, and for any reason other than the need to avoid interference with another road-user or collision with an obstruction or to comply with traffic regulations.

    "Dark time of the night" - a period of time from the end of the evening twilight and until the beginning of morning twilight.

    "Vehicle" is a device, intended for road transportation of people, cargo or equipment installed on it.

    "Pavement" - an element of the road, intended for movement of pedestrians and adjacent to the roadway, or separated from it by the lawn.

    "Give way (do not interfere)" - the requirement, which means that the participant of road traffic should not start, and resume or continue the movement, to exercise any maneuver, if this can force other participants of movement, having advantage in relation to them, change direction or speed.

    "Participant of the road" - a person who takes a direct part in the process of movement as a driver, pedestrian, passenger of the vehicle.

1.3. Traffic participants are obliged to know and to observe requirements of the Rules, traffic signals, signs and markings related to them, as well as to carry out the instructions of the traffic cop, acting within the bounds of their rights and regulating traffic with defined signals.

1.4. Left-hand movement of vehicles is established on the roads.

1.5. Traffic participants should act in such a way, as not to cause danger to traffic and cause no harm.

It is forbidded to damage or pollute the road surface, remove, block, damage, unauthorized installation of road signs, traffic lights and other technical means of traffic organization, keep on the road objects that  create a disturbance to the movement. A person who has created a hindrance, is obliged to take all possible measures to eliminate it, and if this is not possible, by all available means, inform the participants of the movement, of the danger and report it to the police.

1.6. Person who violate the Rules, shall bear responsibility in accordance with the current legislation.

 

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